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Many require new skills to navigate a new social and cultural system.Furthermore, immigrant families may be isolated, and isolation, along with the stressors, increases these families' vulnerability to child maltreatment and other problems .Racial minority children are also over-represented in the child welfare system .For example, African American children constitute 15% of the child population in the United States, but 32% of children in the child welfare system are African American .By the mid-19th century, a romantic perspective emerged and children began to be seen as the "torchbearers" of the future .
As a consequence, social reforms targeted to children, such as child labor restrictions and compulsory education laws, began to emerge .
The process of immigration involves uprooting from the familiar—leaving one's homeland, family, friends, work, lifestyle, and in some cases, even value systems behind .
The adaptation process for immigrants often entails social, psychological, and economic stressors.
For example, boys were protected from forced sodomy, and girls younger than 10 years of age were protected from forcible rape .
In the late 1890s, Sigmund Freud began seeing patients, many of whom were women and described memories of sexual abuse during their childhoods.